Last Updated: 12/07/2023

BSPM Update

December 2023

As of December 06, 2023, the BSPM 2021 model is available to the community through the CCMC Runs-On-Request (ROR) service.

Belgian Space Weather Integrated Forecasting Framework (SWIFF) Plasmasphere Model (BSPM) is a semi-empirical 3D dynamic model of the plasmasphere developed by the Solar Wind Division of the Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy. Based on physical mechanisms for plasmapause formation and trajectories of particles trapped in the Earth’s magnetic field, it provides the number density and the temperature of the electrons and protons inside and outside the plasmasphere, as well as the position of the plasmapause, as a function of the geomagnetic activity driven by the Kp index.


  1. Pierrard, V. and Stegen, K., 2008. A three‐dimensional dynamic kinetic model of the plasmasphere. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 113(A10).
  2. Pierrard, V. and Voiculescu, M., 2011. The 3D model of the plasmasphere coupled to the ionosphere. Geophysical Research Letters, 38(12).
  3. Pierrard V., E. Botek and F. Darrouzet, 2021. Improving Predictions of the 3D Dynamic Model of the Plasmasphere, Front. In Astron. Space Sci., 8:681401.
  4. Botek, E., Pierrard, V. and Darrouzet, F., 2021. Assessment of the Earth’s cold plasmatrough modeling by using Van Allen Probes/EMFISIS and Arase/PWE electron density data. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 126(12), p.e2021JA029737.

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