Last Updated: 05/20/2024


Version: 2008

The new empirical thermospheric density model, Jacchia-Bowman 2008, is developed as an improved revision to the Jacchia-Bowman 2006 model, which is based on the CIRA72 (COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere 1972) model. The CIRA72 model integrates the diffusion equations using the Jacchia 71 temperature formulation to compute density values for an input geographical location and solar conditions. New Driving solar indices are computed from on-orbit sensor data, which are used for the solar irradiances in the extreme through far ultraviolet, including X-ray and Lyman-? wavelengths. New exospheric temperature equations are developed to represent the thermospheric EUV and FUV heating. New semiannual density equations based on multiple 81-day average solar indices are used to represent the variations in the semiannual density cycle that result from EUV heating. Geomagnetic storm effects are modeled using the Dst index as the driver of global density changes.


JB2008 requires solar inputs [F10.7, S10.7 (EUV), M10.7 (FUV), Y10.7 (X-ray and Lyman-α) indices, the centered 81-day average of the four indices] and geomagnetic inputs [Ap and Dst indices]


JB2008 produces exospheric temperature, neutral temperature, and total mass density.

Model is time-dependent.


  • Thermosphere

Space Weather Impacts

  • Atmosphere variability (satellite/debris drag)


  • Atmosphere Expansion



Code Languages: Fortran


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