The 3-D reconstruction technique incorporates a kinematic solar wind model that conserves mass and mass flux and tomographically fits this to ground-based interplanetary scintillation (IPS) data provided by the Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research (ISEE), Japan (formerly the Solar Terrestrial Environment Laboratory). The IPS time-dependent 3-D reconstruction analysis has been available at the CCMC since 2001, but has been updated recently to provide time-dependent volumes of density and velocity at slightly higher resolution than before. The IPS analysis allows the 3-D reconstruction of CMEs and other heliospheric structures such as corotating interaction regions (CIRs).
Velocity observations from ISEE are not available during the winter months (generally December to March) because of snow in the mountains of Japan.
In 2010 a more modern radio array was commissioned (SWIFT) that allowed year-round observations of scintillation level (used by the tomography as a density proxy) from an order of magnitude more radio sources than available prior. Previous to this no IPS data were available in the winter months in Japan.
From 2006 onward magnetic fields from GONG data are extrapolated outward from the IPS inner boundary at 15 Rs using the CSSS model and the velocity analysis from the UCSD tomography.
The tomography currently operates from 15 Rs to 3.0 AU
Remote sensing data of the solar wind (currently IPS observations from the ISEE in Nagoya, Japan).
Solar wind density and velocity throughout the inner heliosphere.
Model is time-dependant.
- Heliosphere / Inner Heliosphere
Space Weather Impacts
- Geomagnetically induced currents - GICs (electric power systems)
- Ionosphere variability (navigation, communications)
- Near-earth radiation and plasma environment (aerospace assets functionality)
- Dunn, T., B. V. Jackson, P. P. Hick, A. Buffington, and X. P. Zhao (2005), Comparative Analyses of the CSSS Calculation in the UCSD Tomographic Solar Observations, Solar Phys., 227, 339.
- Jackson, B. V., P. L. Hick, M. Kojima, and A. Yokobe (1998), Heliospheric tomography using interplanetary scintillation observations 1. Combined Nagoya and Cambridge data, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 12049.
- Jackson, B. V., P. P. Hick, A. Buffington, M. Kojima, M. Tokumaru, K. Fujiki, T. Ohmi, and M. Yamashita (2003), Time-dependent tomography of hemispheric features using interplanetary scintillation (IPS) remote-sensing observations, in Velli, M., R. Bruno and F. Malara, Solar Wind Ten, 679, 75.
- Jackson, B. V., P. P. Hick, A. Buffington, M. M. Bisi, J. M. Clover, and M. Tokumaru (2008), Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) and Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) 3D-Reconstructions of the Inner Heliosphere, Adv. in Geosciences, 21, 339.
- Jackson, B. V., P. P. Hick, M. M. Bisi, J. M. Clover, and A. Buffington (2010), Inclusion of in-situ Velocity Measurements in the UCSD Time-Dependent Tomography to Constrain and Better-Forecast Remote-Sensing Observations, Solar Phys., 265, 245, doi: 10.1007/s11207-010-9529-0.
- Jackson, B. V., P. P. Hick, A. Buffington, M. M. Bisi, J. M. Clover, M. Tokumaru, M. Kojima, and K. Fujiki (2011), Three-dimensional reconstruction of heliospheric structure using iterative tomography: A review, J. Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Phys., 73, 1214.
- Jackson, B. V., P. P. Hick, A. Buffington, J. M. Clover, and M. Tokumaru (2012), Forecasting Transient Heliospheric Solar Wind Parameters at the Locations of the Inner Planets, Adv. in Geosciences, 30, 93
- Jackson, B. V., J. M. Clover, P. P. Hick, A. Buffington, M. M. Bisi, and M. Tokumaru (2013), Inclusion of Real-Time in-situ Measurements into the UCSD Time-Dependent Tomography and Its Use as a Forecast Algorithm, Solar Phys., 285, 151.
- Jackson, B. V., D. Odstrcil, D., H.-S. Yu, P. P. Hick, A. Buffington, J. C. Mejia-Ambriz, J. Kim, S. Hong, Y. Kim, J. Han, J., and M. Tokumaru (2015), The UCSD IPS Solar Wind Boundary and its use in the ENLIL 3D-MHD Prediction Model, Space Weather, 13, 104, doi: 10.1002/ 2014SW001130.
- Jackson, B. V., Hick, P. P., Buffington, A., Yu, H.-S., Bisi, M. M., Tokumaru, M., & Zhao, X. (2015). A determination of the north-south heliospheric magnetic field component from solar coronal closed-loop propagation, Astrophys. J. Letts., 803:L1., 1, doi: 10.1088/2041-8205/803/1/L1.
- Jackson, B. V., Yu, H.-S., Buffington, A., Hick, P. P., Nishimura, N., Nozaki, N., Tokumaru, M., Fujiki, K., & Hayashi, K. (2016). Exploration of solar photospheric magnetic field data sets using the UCSD tomography, Space Weather, 14, 1107, doi: 10.1002/2016SW001481.
- Jian, L. K., MacNeice, P. J., Taktakishvili, A., Odstrcil, D., Jackson, B., Yu, H.-S., Arge, C. N., Riley, P., Sokolov, I. V., & Evans, R. M. (2015). Validation for Solar Wind Prediction at Earth: Comparison of Coronal and Heliospheric Models Installed at the CCMC, Space Weather, 13, 316, doi: 10.1002/2015SW001174.
- Jian, L. K., MacNeice, P. J., Mays, M. L., Taktakishvili, A., Odstrcil, D., Jackson, B., Yu, H.-S., Riley, P., Sokolov, I. V. (2016). Validation for Global Solar Wind Prediction Using Ulysses Comparison: Multiple Coronal and Heliospheric Models Installed at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center, Space Weather, 14, 592611, doi: 10.1002/2016SW001435.
- Kojima, M., M. Tokumaru, H. Watanabe, A. Yokobe, K. Asai, B. V. Jackson, and P. L. Hick (1998), Heliospheric tomography using interplanetary scintillation observations 2. Latitude and heliocentric distance dependence of solar wind structure at 0.1-1 AU, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 1981.
- MacNeice, P. , Jian , L., Antiochos, S. K., Arge, C. N., Bussy-Virat, C, D., DeRosa, M. L., Jackson, B. V., Linker, J. A., Mikic, Z., Owens, M. J., Ridley, A. J., Riley, P., Savani, N., & Sokolov, I. (2018). Assessing the quality of models of the ambient solar wind, Space Weather, 16, 1644, doi: 10.1029/2018SW002040.
- Tokumaru, M., Kojima, M., Fujiki, K., Maruyama, K., Maruyama, Y., Ito, H., & Iju, T. (2011). A newly developed UHF radiotelescope for interplanetary scintillation observations: Solar Wind Imaging Facility, Radio Sci., 46, RS0F02.
- Yu, H.-S., B. V. Jackson, P. P. Hick, A. Buffington, D. Odstrcil, C.-C. Wu, J. A. Davies, M. M. Bisi, and M. Tokumaru (2015), 3D Reconstruction of Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) Remote-Sensing Data: Global Solar Wind Boundaries for Driving 3D-MHD Models, Solar Phys., 290, 2519, doi: 10.1007/s11207-015-0685-0.
- Zhao, X., and J. T. Hoeksema (1995), Prediction of the interplanetary magnetic field strength, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 19.
Code Languages: Fortran, IDL
- Near real-time analysis
- The IPS data from ISEE, Japan
- Program Software is available on SolarSoft
- Program Software is available at UCSD
In addition to any model-specific policy, please refer to the General Publication Policy.