# Physical Variables by Models or Model Types

## AbbyNormal

**Physical Variables written by AbbyNormal specification:**

The **coordinate system** consists of

- Longitude
**Lon**with**positive**vector components meaning**eastward**, - Latitude
**Lat**from -90 at the south pole to 90 at the north pole with**positive**being**northward**, - Altitude
**Alt**in km.

**Height-integrated quantities in 3D data**

available at each position in local time and latitude

**abt***freq* in [dB]: Total absorption in D and E regions at frequency *freq***abd***freq* in [dB]: D-region absorption at frequency *freq***abe***freq* in [dB]: E-region absorption at frequency *freq*

## CalcDeltaB

The **magnetic field perturbations** in [nT] written by the SWMF model (Bn, Be, Bd) (in geographic or geomagnetic (dipole) coordinates) is the sum of the field contributions in the magnetosphere (with suffix *Mhd*), field-aligned currents (*Fac*), and Hall (*Hal*) and Pedersen (*Ped*) currents in the ionosphere.

The output variables are:

**Bn**: north component of the magnetic field perturbation (sum of all contributions),**Be**: east component of the magnetic field perturbation (sum of all contributions),**Bd**: down component of the magnetic field perturbation (sum of all contributions),**BnMag**: north component of the magnetic field perturbation (magnetosphere MHD only),**BeMag**: east component of the magnetic field perturbation (magnetosphere MHD only),**BdMag**: down component of the magnetic field perturbation (magnetosphere MHD only),**BnFac**: north component of the magnetic field perturbation (field-aligned currents only),**BeFac**: east component of the magnetic field perturbation (field-aligned currents only),**BdFac**: down component of the magnetic field perturbation (field-aligned currents only),**BnIono**: north component of the magnetic field perturbation (currents in ionosphere only),**BeIono**: east component of the magnetic field perturbation (currents in ionosphere only),**BdIono**: down component of the magnetic field perturbation (currents in ionosphere only),

## CM5

The **magnetic field** in [nT] written by the CM5 model (in geodetic coordinates) is the sum of the selected field contributions in the Earth's crust and resulting from ocean tides, ionosphere and magnetosphere currents.The output variables are:

**magnitude**or total strength of the magnetic field,**declination**of the magnetic field,**inclination**of the magnetic field. Magnetic poles are located where the inclination is either -90 or +90 degrees.

## CTIP

The **coordinate system** consists of

- Longitude
**Lon**with**positive**vector components meaning**eastward**, - Latitude
**Lat**from -90 at the south pole to 90 at the north pole with**positive**being**northward**, - pressure level
**IP**or height**H**in [km].

**Vector (arrow) plots** of the velocities only make sense as:

**vertical cuts**(meridional or at constant-latitude) if**UseHeight**is selected,**synoptic maps**of velocity vectors (over local time and latitude) if plotted at**constant height**(not constant pressure level IP).

The **basic plasma and electrodynamic field variables in 3D** are:

**H (height)**in [km] corresponding to pressure level number**IP**

The height of a pressure level varies spatially and with time. Heights covered start at about 80 km (**IP**=0) and reach a few hundred km above ground (the maximum found for**IP**=14, the top layer, is typically between 450 km and 1000 km).

The height can be used as an alternative 3rd coordinate for plotting.- Particle number density
**N**in [m^{-3}] with species identifier (after the "_"):**e**: electrons,**O**: oxygen ions,**N2**: nitrogen molecules,**O2**: oxygen molecules.

- Neutral gas temperature
**T_n**in [K]. - Mean molecular mass
**Rmt**in [amu]. - Hall and Pedersen conductivities
**sigma_H**,**sigma_P**in [mho/m]. - Neutral gas velocity
**Vn**in [m/s] with its three components**Vn_Lat**(meridional; CTIP name "V_x", also named**U**),**Vn_Lon**(zonal, longitudinal; CTIP name "V_y", also named**V**) and**Vn_IP**(vertical, radial; CTIP name "V_z").

**I**on velocity** Vi **with its three components:**Vi_Lat**("Vi_x"),**Vi_Lon**("Vi_y"),**Vi_IP**("Vi_z") is missing in the model output and assumed to be zero for vector arrow plots.

**sigmaP**,**sigmaH**: Pedersen and Hall conductivities [S/m],

**Height-integrated quantities in 3D data**

available at each position in local time and latitude (obtained from 3D CTIP variables above)

**NmF2**: maximum electron density**N_e**in [m^{-3}] in the vertical profile**HmF2**: height in [km] of the maximum of**N_e**(see**NmF2**)**TEC,**total electron content, integrated over altitudes between 80 and 2000 km [TECU=10^{16}electrons/m^{2}]**O/N2**: ratio of N_O and N_N2 in the vertical column. The ratio is calculated from the pressure level where**SH*N_N2=10**^{21}**m**with^{-2}**SH=k_B T_n/(g*m(N2))**being the scale height of the N2 gas species (m(N2)=28 amu). The O-column density is obtained by interpolation at this pressure level using model outputs at pressure levels 8 and 9.

### CTIP Timeline

Energy deposition rates written by the CTIPe model (unit of all variables is [GW]):

**P_tot**: auroral energy input over both the northern and southern hemispheres**P_euv,N**: extreme ultraviolet solar radiation ( λ < 102.7 nm) integrated over northern hemisphere**P_euv,S**: extreme ultraviolet solar radiation ( λ < 102.7 nm) integrated over southern hemisphere**P_uv,N**: far ultraviolet solar radiation (102.7 nm < λ < 200 nm) integrated over northern hemisphere**P_uv,S**: far ultraviolet solar radiation (102.7 nm < λ < 200 nm) integrated over southern hemisphere**P_J.E,N**: sum of Joule heating and kinetic energy dissipation in northern hemisphere**P_J.E,S**: sum of Joule heating and kinetic energy dissipation in southern hemisphere**P_Joule,N**: Joule heating in the northern hemispheres**P_Joule,S**: Joule heating in the southern hemispheres**P_kin,N**: kinetic energy in the northern hemispheres**P_kin,S**: kinetic energy in the southern hemispheres**P_kin**: kinetic energy in both the southern and northern hemispheres

## CTIPe

The **coordinate system** consists of

- Longitude
**Lon**with**positive**vector components meaning**eastward**, - Latitude
**Lat**from -90 at the south pole to 90 at the north pole with**positive**being**northward**, - pressure level
**IP**or height**H**in km.

**Vector (arrow) plots** of the velocities only make sense as:

**vertical cuts**(meridional or at constant-latitude) if**UseHeight**is selected,**synoptic maps**of velocity vectors (over local time and latitude) if plotted at**constant height**(not constant pressure level IP).

The **basic plasma and electrodynamic field variables in 3D** are:

**H (height)**in [km] corresponding to pressure level number**IP**

The height of a pressure level varies spatially and with time. Heights covered start at about 80 km (**IP**=0) and reach a few hundred km above ground (the maximum found for**IP**=14, the top layer, is typically between 450 km and 1000 km).

The height can be used as an alternative 3rd coordinate for plotting.- Particle number density
**N**in [m-3] with species identifier (after the "_"):**e**: electrons,**O**: oxygen ions,**N2**: nitrogen molecules,**O2**: oxygen molecules.**NO**: nitric oxide.**NO+**: nitric oxide ions.**N2+**: molecular nitrogen ions.**O2+**: molecular oxygen ions.**N+**: atomic nitrogen ions.**O+**: atomic oxygen ions.**H+**: atomic hydrogen ions.

- Neutral gas temperature
**T_n**in [K]. - Mean molecular mass
**Rmt**in [amu]. - Hall and Pedersen conductivities
**sigma_H**,**sigma_P**in [mho/m]. - Neutral gas velocity
**Vn**in [m/s] with its three components:**Vn_Lat**(meridional; CTIP name "V_x" also named**U**),**Vn_Lon**(zonal, longitudinal; CTIP name "V_y" also named**V**) and**Vn_IP**(vertical, radial; CTIP name "V_z", also named**W**).

- Plasma (ion) velocity
**Vi**in [m/s] with its components:**Vi_Lat**("Vi_x"),**Vi_Lon**("Vi_y").**Vi_IP**("Vi_z") is missing in the model output and assumed to be zero for vector arrow plots.

**Heating rates per mass:****Psolar**: solar heating in [J/(kg s)]**Pjoule**: joule heating in [J/(kg s)]**Prad**: radiation heating/cooling in [J/(kg s)]

- Electric field at two altitudes:
**E140_theta**: latitudinal component of electric field at 140 km [V/m]**E140_lambda**: longitudinal component of electric field at 140 km [V/m]**E300_theta**: latitudinal component of electric field at 300 km [V/m]**E300_lambda**: longitudinal component of electric field at 300 km [V/m]

**Height-integrated quantities in 3D data** are available at each position in local time and latitude (obtained from 3D CTIP variables above)

**NmF2**: maximum electron density**N_e**in [m^{-3}] in the vertical profile**HmF2**: height in [km] of the maximum of**N_e**(see**NmF2**)**TEC,**total electron content, integrated over altitudes between 80 and 2000 km [TECU=10^{16}electrons/m2]**O/N2**: ratio of N_O and N_N2 in the vertical column. The ratio is calculated from the pressure level where**SH*N_N2=10**^{21}**m**with^{-2}**SH=k_B T_n/(g*m(N2))**being the scale height of the N2 gas species (m(N2)=28 amu). The O-column density is obtained by interpolation at this pressure level using model outputs at pressure levels 8 and 9.**SigmaP**,**SigmaH**: Pedersen and Hall conductance [S],**Wjoule**: Joule heating [mW / m2],

**Changes in output parameters** from geomagnetic quiet condition (Kp~3):

**rd**(output parameter): run difference (e.g.: rd(T_n)=T_n (current condition) - T_n (geomagnetic quiet condition))**Run ratio of NmF2**rr(NmF2)= NmF2(current condition)/NmF2(geomagnetic quiet condition)

Zonal averages are calculated from **T (T_n), T_e, T_i, Vn_lat (U) and Vn_lon (V)**

## GITM

**Physical Variables written by GITM simulations:**

The **coordinate system** consists of

- Longitude
**lon**with**positive**vector components meaning**eastward**, - Latitude
**lat**from -90 at the south pole to 90 at the north pole with**positive**being**northward**, - height
**Z**in km.

**Vector (arrow) plots** of the velocities only make sense as:

**vertical cuts**(meridional or at constant-latitude) if**UseHeight**is selected,**synoptic maps**of velocity vectors (over local time and latitude) if plotted at**constant height**.

The **basic plasma and electrodynamic field variables in 3D** are:

- Particle number density
**N**in [m-3] with species identifier (after the "_"):**e**: electrons,**O(3P)**: oxygen atoms (3P ground state),**O(1D)**: oxygen atoms (1D excitation state),**N2**: nitrogen molecules**O2**: oxygen molecules**N(3P)**: atomic nitrogen with 3P excitation state**N(4S)**: atomic nitrogen with 4S excitation state**N(2D)**: atomic nitrogen with 2D excitation state**N(2P)**: atomic nitrogen with 2P excitation state**H**: atomic Hydrogen**He**: atomic Helium**Ar**: atomic Argon**N2+**: molecular nitrogen ions**NO**: nitric oxide**O(4SP)+**: atomic oxygen ions with 4SP excitation state**O(2D)+**: atomic oxygen ions woth 2D excitation state**O(2P)+**: atomic oxygen ions with 2P excitation state**NO+**: nitric oxide ions**N2+**: molecular nitrogen ions**O2+**: molecular oxygen ions

**O(3P)/N2**: ratio of ground state oxygen number density to molecular nitrogen- Neutral gas temperature
**T_n**in [K]. - Neutral gas velocity
**Vn**in [m/s] with its three components**Vn_lat**(meridional; also referred to as "V_x"),**Vn_lon**(zonal, longitudinal; also referred to as "V_y") and**Vn_z**(vertical, radial; also referred to as "V_z"). - Vertical drift velocities of selected neutral species:
**Vn(O(3P))_z**oxygen atoms, 3P excitation state**Vn(N2)_z**nitrogen molecules**Vn(O2)_z**oxygen molecules**Vn(N(4S))_z**nitrogen atoms, 4S excitation state**Vn(NO)_z**nitric oxide molecules - Plasma (ion) velocity
**Vi**in [m/s] with its components:**Vi_lat**(Vi_x): latitudinal (meridional) ion velocity.**Vi_lon**(Vi_y): longitudinal (zonal) ion velocity**Vi_z**: vertical ion velocity

**Height-integrated quantities in 3D data**

available at each position in local time and latitude (written by model or calculated from 3D GITM variables above)

**NmF2**: maximum electron density**N_e**in [m-3] in the vertical profile,**HmF2**: height in [km] of the maximum of**N_e**(see**NmF2**),**TEC,**total electron content, integrated over altitudes between 80 and 2000 km [TECU=1016 electrons/m2],**LT**: Local Time [hour],**SZA**: Solar Zenith Angle [deg],**Q**: Heat flux [mW m-2],**WJoule**: Joule heating [mW m-2],**WEUV**: Solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) heating [mW m-2],**WNO-Cool**: Cooling rate due to Nitrous Oxide (NO) [mW m-2].

**Changes in output parameters** from geomagnetic quiet condition (Kp~3):

**rd**(output parameter): run difference (e.g.: rd(T_n)=T_n (current condition) - T_n (geomagnetic quiet condition))**Run ratio of NmF2**rr(NmF2)= NmF2(current condition)/NmF2(geomagnetic quiet condition)

## IFM

**Physical Variables written by IFM specifications:**

The **coordinate system** consists of

- Longitude
**Lon**with**positive**vector components meaning**eastward**, - Latitude
**Lat**from -90 at the south pole to 90 at the north pole with**positive**being**northward**, - Altitude
**Alt**in km.

The **field variables in 3D** are:

- Particle number density
**N**in [m-3] with species identifier (after the "_"):**e**: electrons,**H+**: hydrogen ions,**O+**: oxygen ions,**NO+**: nitrogen oxide molecule ions,**N2+**: nitrogen molecule ions,**O2+**: oxygen molecule ions.

- Electron temperature
**T_e**in [K]. - Ion temperature
**T_i**in [K].

**Height-integrated quantities in 3D data**

available at each position in longitude and latitude

**TEC**: Total Electron Content in [m-2]**NmF2**: Maximum electron density (Ne) in F-region in [m-3]**HmF2**: Altitude in [km] of the F-region maximum of**N_e**(see**NmF2**)**NmE**: Maximum electron density in E-region in [m-3]**HmE**: Altitude in [km] of the E-region maximum of**N_e**(see**NmE**)

## Ionospheric Electrodynamics

**Physical Variables written in Ionospheric Electrodynamics:**

The plasma and electrodynamic field variables in the ionosphere model are:

- Electric potential
**PHI**in kV, - Hall Conductance
**SigmaH**in 1/Ohm, - Pedersen Conductance
**SigmaP**in 1/Ohm, - Radial current density
**JR**in micro-A/m^2, - Velocities
**V**with its three components**V_x**in km/s,**V_y**and**V_z**, may be further identified by particle species, e.g. electrons (**V_e,x**), - Electric surface current density
**J**in micro-A/m with its three components**J_x**,**J_y**and**J_z**, - Electric field
**E**in milli-V/m with its three components**E_x**,**E_y**and**E_z**, - Electric current parallel to the magnetic field,
**Jpar**, computed from**JR**and the local dipole field orientation.

Derived quantities (calculated by CCMC):

**New:**Components of**J**in spherical coordinates:**J_t**and**J_p**(same for drift velocity**V**and electric field**E**, if available). Since the model outputs are derived on constant-radius shells, the "r" component of each of these vectors (e.g.,**J_r**) is always zero and thus is not listed.**Note:**The theta component flips sign around the polar axis of the spherical coordinate system (at X=0 and Y=0).- Joule dissipation rate
**Wdiss**in W/m2 (computed as**J**2**SigmaP**/(**SigmaP**2+**SigmaH**2)). - Solar Zenith Angle
**SZA**in degrees - Pedersen and Hall conductances due to solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV)
**SigmaP,EUV**and**SigmaH,EUV**.

These are calculated from the solar F10.7 index and the SZA distribution and may include background values such as "starlight" conductances. - Pedersen and Hall conductances in 1/Ohm due to precipitation
**SigmaP,prec**and**SigmaH,prec**(may be calculated by MHD proxies such as field aligned currents).

Data displayed are calculated from the total conductance minus the respective EUV conductance contribution (e.g., SigmaP, prec=sqrt[SigmaP2-SigmaP, EUV2]).

## IRI

**Physical Variables written by IRI request runs:**

The **coordinate system** consists of

**Lon**Longitude**Lon**, positive is eastward,**Lat**Latitude**Lat**from -90 at the south pole to 90 at the north pole,**H**Height between 100 and 1000 km

The **basic thermosphere/ionosphere variables in 3D** are:

- Particle number density
**N**in [cm-3] with species identifier:**e**: electron**H+**: atomic hydrogen ion**O+<**: atomic oxygen ion**N+**: atomic nitrogen ion**O2+**: molecular oxygen ion**NO+**: nitric oxide ion

- Temperature in [K]:
**T_n**: neutral gas**T_i**: ions**T_e**: electrons **TEC**-- Total Electron Content (in TECU).

## JB

**Physical Variables written by JB request runs:**

The **coordinate system** consists of

**Lon**Longitude**Lon**, positive is eastward,**Lat**Latitude**Lat**from -90 at the south pole to 90 at the north pole,**H**Height between 100 and 1000 km

The **basic thermosphere/ionosphere variables in 3D** are:

**T_exo**: exospheric temperature in K (provided on 2D longitude-latitude grid)**T**: temperature in K**Rho**: mass density in kg/m3

## Magnetometer

**Physical Variables written at magnetometer sites from coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere Simulations:**

The **magnetic perturbations** written by the SWMF model (in geomagnetic coordinates) are:

**sumBn, SumBe, sumBd**total magnetic perturbation in the North (n), East (e) and Down (d) direction.**dBn, dBe, dBd**magnetic perturbations from the magnetosphere (MHD solution in the magnetosphere, typically outside of 3 to 4 RE from the Earth's center,**facdBn, facdBe, facdBd**magnetic perturbation from field-aligned currents, mapped along dipole field lines between the magnetosphere and the ionosphere (at 110 km altitude),- JhdBn, JhdBe, JhdBd magnetic perturbation from the ionosphere (at 110 km altitude), resulting from Hall currents
- JpdBn, JpdBe, JpdBd magnetic perturbation from the ionosphere, resulting from Pedersen currents

The <**Magnetic perturbations** written by CalcDeltaB (postprocessing from LFM, OpenGGCM or GUMICS model outputs):

**B_NorthGeomag, B_EastGeomag, B_DownGeomag**total magnetic perturbation in the North (n), East (e) and Down (d) direction, respectively.- Constant values of geomagnetic longitude
**GeomagLon**and latitude**GeomagLat**may be listed in these files for information.

## MAS

**Variables of MAS diagnostic output files:**

All variables are spatially integrated to form a single number for each time step. Most are in dimensionless units and are used to determine whether a stationary state is reached,

*Variables used in .hccmc files*

- measures of magnetic energy:
- Br**2: Br2 integrated over the simulation volume
- Bt**2: Bt2 or Blat2 integrated over the simulation volume
- Bp**2: Bp2 or Blon2 integrated over the simulation volume
- W: total magnetic energy

- measures of kinetic energy:
- rho*Vr**2: ρ Vr2 integrated over the simulation volume
- rho*Vt**2: ρ Vt2 or ρ Vlat2 integrated over the simulation volume
- rho*Vp**2: ρ Vp2 or ρ Vlon2 integrated over the simulation volume
- K: total kinetic energy
- vmag0: unused, set to zero

- E: total energy (not conserved due to magnetofriction method to attain steady state / equilibrium
- measures of magnetic forces:
- |JxB|: magnitude of Lorentz force integrated over the simulation volume
- |J.B|: magnitude of parallel currents integrated over the simulation volume

*Variables used in .qccmc files:*

- cell_visc_max: maximum numerical viscosity in cell
- cell_eta_ma*: maximum numerical resistivity in cell

*Variables used in .vccmc files:*

- rho_vpar_r**2: ρ_v||,r2: density times square of r-component of b-parallel velocity
- rho_vpar_r**2: ρ_v||,t2: density times square of t(theta)-component of b-parallel velocity
- rho_vpar_r**2: ρ_v||,p2: density times square of p(hi)-component of b-parallel velocity
- rho_vperp_t**2: ρ_v⊥,t2 density times radial component of b-perpendicular velocity
- rho_vperp_t**2: ρ_v⊥,t2 density times radial component of b-perpendicular velocity
- ρ_vperp_t**2: ρ_v⊥,t2 density times radial component of b-perpendicular velocity
- vr(diag)Vt: averaged in the simulation volume.
- vt(diag)Vt: averaged in the simulation volume.
- vp(diag)Vt: averaged in the simulation volume.
- dt: time step used.
- CFL: "Courant Friedrich Levy" number, ratio of maximum allowable explicit time step and time step dt used
- vmax: maximum plasma velocity found in the simulation volume.

The basic plasma and electrodynamic field variables are:

- Mass density
**Rho**or particle number density**N**. - Plasma pressure
**P**. - Internal Energy
**En.**(P/(γ-1) with γ="ratio of specific heats", usually 5/3). - Resistivity
**Eta**(some runs). - Plasma velocity
**V**with its three components**V_x**,**V_y**and**V_z**. - Magnetic field
**B**with its three components**B_x**,**B_y**and**B_z**. **B1**is the difference between**B**and the Earth's dipole field (components**B1_x**,**B1_y**,**B1_z**).**B1**is used to see small variations of**B**near the Earth.- Electric current density
**J**with its three components**J_x**,**J_y**and**J_z**. - B-parallel electric current density
**J_par**with its three components**J_par_x**,**J_par_y**and**J_par_z**.**Note:**flow line tracings do not make much sense with this vector! - Electric field
**E**with its three components**E_x**,**E_y**and**E_z**. **Plasma-β**: "beta"=P/(B2/2μ0).

**The underscore ("_") indicates subscript level in variable name used in plots.**

**Gradients and divergences (magnetosphere models only at this time):**

- Gradients of selected scalar variables (e.g., gradN, gradT, gradP) and divergences of selected vectors (e.g., div.
**V**, div.**ExB**) can be requested for visualization and ASCII data output. - A certain discrepancy from expected values can be expected since divergences and gradients are computed based on a finite differencing of data that may have been interpolated before computing the gradient or divergence.
- Vector values in some models may be defined on staggered meshes. For visualization and the computation of derived quantities (such as ExB) all vector variables are interpolated to cell center positions (where plasma parameters such as N, P, T already reside).

**Quantities scaled with radial distance in solar coronal and heliospheric models:**

Coordinates: r,lon,lat for MAS, ENLIL and x,y,z for SWMF

- Scaled with r2:
- N, P, B_r, JxB, E.J (if currents J are available)

- Scaled with r1:
- B (B_lon,B_lat or B_x,B_y,B_z),

E (E_r,E_lon,E_lat or E_x,E_y,E_z),

J (J_r,J_lon,J_lat or J_x,J_y,J_z),

J_par(J_par_r,J_par_lon,J_par_lat or J_par_x,J_par_y,J_par_z)

- Not scaled:
- T, beta, S (entropy), V (V_r,V_lon,V_lat or V_x,V_y,V_z)

## MHD Simulations

The **basic plasma and electrodynamic field variables** (written by each MHD model) are:

- Mass density
**Rho**or particle number density**N**. - Plasma pressure
**P**. - Plasma velocity
**V**with its three components**V_x**,**V_y**and**V_z**. - Magnetic field
**B**with its three components**B_x**,**B_y**and**B_z**. **B1**- SWMF/BATSRUS model: this is the difference between
**B**and the Earth's dipole field (components**B1_x**,**B1_y**,**B1_z**).**B1**is used to see small variations of**B**near the Earth. - UCLA-GGCM/OpenGGCM: B1 is the magnetic field as stored on the original model grid on grid cell faces.

Each B1 component exists on a grid that is offset from the "plasma" grid (where N, T, V are defined) by half a grid position in the direction of the respective field component (i.e., the grid for B1x is offset in X, the grid for By is offset in Y, and the grid for B1z is offset in Z).

When using components of**B1**for field line tracing, the original grid positions are used for improved accuracy instead of using B field values interpolated onto the plasma grid before performing interpolations during field line tracing (when using components of**B**).

**BA**is the "B-field anomaly", the difference between the total field strength**B**and the strength of the Earth's dipole field**B-dipole**.- Electric current density
**J**with its three components**J_x**,**J_y**and**J_z**.

**Primary variables written occasionally** or by some models only:

- Internal Energy
**En.**(P/(γ-1) with γ="ratio of specific heats", usually 5/3). - Resistivity
**Eta**(some runs).

**Derived quantities**

Note: everything listed here and below is calculated by CCMC.

Please report errors to us.

**New:**Vector components in spherical coordinates for models with cartesian grids.

For example**V_r**,**V_t**,**V_p**: plasma velocity in the radial, theta and phi direction, respectively.**Note:**The theta component flips sign around the polar axis of the spherical coordinate system (at X=0 and Y=0).

Spherical components are available for vectors (**B**,**B1**,**V**,**J**, and**E**) that exist in primary model outputs.- B-parallel electric current density
**J_par**with its three components**J_par_x**,**J_par_y**and**J_par_z**.**Note:**flow line tracings do not make much sense with this vector! - Electric field
**E**with its three components**E_x**,**E_y**and**E_z**. **Plasma-β**: "beta"=P/(B2/2μ0).- **Plasma Frequency:**We assume N=Ne=Ni (electron-proton plasma).
- ωpi = 1.32_103_(N [cm-3])1/2 - ion plasma frequency
- ωpe = 5.64_104_(N [cm-3])1/2 - electron plasma frequency

**The underscore ("_") indicates subscript level in variable name used in plots.**

**Gradients and divergences (magnetosphere models SWMF/BATSRUS and OpenGGCM only at this time):**

**Vorticity**"omega" (curl of V) with components "omega"x, "omega"y, "omega"z,- Gradients of selected scalar variables (e.g., gradN, gradT, gradP) and divergences of selected vectors (e.g., div.
**V**, div.**ExB**) and curls of vectors can be requested for visualization and ASCII data output.

A certain discrepancy from expected values can be expected since divergences and gradients are computed based on a finite differencing of data that may have been interpolated before computing the gradient or divergence.

Vector values in some models may be defined on staggered meshes. For visualization and the computation of derived quantities (such as ExB) all vector variables are interpolated to cell center positions (where plasma parameters such as N, P, T already reside).

**Quantities scaled with radial distance in solar coronal and heliospheric models:**

Coordinates: r,lon,lat for MAS, ENLIL and x,y,z for SWMF

- Scaled with r2:
- N, P, B_r, JxB, E.J (if currents J are available)

- Scaled with r1:
- B (B_lon,B_lat or B_x,B_y,B_z),

E (E_r,E_lon,E_lat or E_x,E_y,E_z),

J (J_r,J_lon,J_lat or J_x,J_y,J_z),

J_par(J_par_r,J_par_lon,J_par_lat or J_par_x,J_par_y,J_par_z)

- Not scaled:
- T, beta, S (entropy), V (V_r,V_lon,V_lat or V_x,V_y,V_z)

## NAIRAS

**The output variables are:**

**Deff**: Effective Dose Rate of galactic radiation [μSv/h]

## Ovation-Prime

**Physical Variables written:**

The output variables are:

**Eflux**: Energy flux [W/m2] (displayed online as 'W')**Eave**: Average Energy [eV]**Nflux**: Number flux [1/m2] (not currently offered)

Each of these are available for

- electrons ('e'),
- ions ('i'),
- electons and ions combined ('e+i').

The 2D patterns are returned for different types of precipitation:

- All types of precipitation ('all'),
- monoenergetic aurora ('mono') or
- diffuse aurora ('diff').

Variable names are formed by combining the variable type, species and precipitation type, e.g., 'Eflux_e,mono' or 'Eave_e+i,all'.

Variable names without variable type identifier ('e+i,all', 'e,all', 'i,all') are energy flux ('Eflux(') values (these were the only outputs provided before Nov. 19, 2021 for request runs).

## PANDOCA

**Physical Variables written:**

The output variables are:

**doserate**: Effective Dose Rate of galactic radiation [μSv/h]

The model covers three typical aviation altitude levels:

- 30000 ft or 9.144 km,
- 35000 ft or 10.668 km, and
- 40000 ft or 12.192 km.

## PBMOD

**Physical Variables written by PBMOD:**

The **coordinate system** consists of

- Longitude
**Lon**(geomagnetic or geographic) with**positive**meaning**eastward**, - Latitude
**Lat**in [deg] from -40 in the south pole to 40 in the north hemisphere with**positive**being**northward**, - Altitude
**Alt**in [km]. - Gamma (dimensionless) = 0 (indicating position on fieldlines at magnetic equator)

**Scintillation bubble outputs in (geomagnetic) longitude and apex altitude:**

**N_e**(rho) electron density in [cm-3]**PHI**(pot) electric potential in[V]**Vx**meridional (latitudinal) velocity in [m/s]**Vy**zonal (longitudinal) velocity in [m/s]

**Scintillation maps in 2D:**

geographic longitude, latitude grid

**S4**Scintillation index (dimensionless) for amplitude**S4phscn**S4 Scintillation index (dimensionless) for phase**dS4**– scintillation error measure (dimensionless)

*Scintillation maps are for UHF (250 Mhz, scintmap) and L-band (1500 MHz, scintmapL).*

**'Peak' map in 2D:**

geographic longitude, latitude grid (slightly different than scintillation maps)

**TEC**total electron content in [TECU] or [10^{16}m^{-2}]**NmF2**electron density peak in F2 layer in [cm^{-3}]**HmF2**height of electron density peak in F2 layer in [km]

## Rice Convection Model (RCM)

**Physical Variables Written by Rice Convection Model:**

- 3D data in equatorial plane - species and energy grid (for model developers only)
**Z coordinate**- species and energy channel index**K**, energy channels for electrons, H+ and O+ ions cover separate ranges in K space.**ALAM**- invariant energy level channel - negative values are for electrons**E_east, E_south**electic field in eastern and southern direction [mV/m]**EETA**- number of particles at each grid point (i,j,k) [particles/Weber]**VEFF**- effective potential [V]**W**- kinetic energy at each grid point (i,j,k) [eV]

- 2D data mapped into ionosphere (for all users):
**BIRK(NH)**- birkeland currents in the northern hemisphere; positive is downward [10^-6 A/m^2]**eavg**- average energy of precipitating electrons [eV]**EAVG(e-), EAVG(H+), EAVG(O+)**- average energy foir electrons, protons, Oxygen ions

**eflux**- total energy flux of electrons that precipitate at the altitude of 100 km [erg/cm^2/s/sr]**EFLUX(e-), EFLUX(H+), EFLUX()+)**- average energy flux for electrons, protons, Oxygen ions

**N(RCM)**- total RCM ion number density [cm^-3] - to be written out into**N_e**or**N(e-)**- electron number density [cm^-3]**N_h+**or**N(H+)**- H+ (proton) number density [cm^-3]**N_O+**or**N(O+)**- O+ number density [cm^-3]

**P(RCM)**or**P_total(RCM)**- total RCM ion pressure [nPa]**P(e-), P(H+),P(He+)**pressure from individual particle species

**PVG**(or**PV_gamma**) - P*V^gamma (gamma=5/3, ratio of specific heats for atoms) [customized units]**Sigma_P**- field-line integrated Pedersen conductance**pedpsi**- tensor element PSI (Sigma_p*sin(I), I = magnetic field inclination angle)**pedlam**- tensor element LAMBDA (Sigma_p*sin(I))

**Sigma_H, Hall**- field-line integrated Hall conductance**T(RCM)**- total RCM average ion temperature [eV] - to be divided into**T_e(RCM)**or**T(e-)**- total RCM electron temperature [eV]**T_h+(RCM)**or**T(H+)**- total RCM H+ ion temperature [eV]**T_O+(RCM)**or**T(O+)**- total RCM O+ ion temperature [eV]

**V, PHI, Pot_iono**- ionospheric electric potential in rotating frame [V]**Pot_parallel**- magnetic-field-parallel electric potential [V],

**Vdrift_west**- Drift velocity in westerly direction, [m/s],**VM**- (flux tube volume)^(-2/3) in [(RE/nT)^(-2/3)] (negative for open field lines)

## Fok Ring Current and Radiation Belt Model

**Physical Variables Written by Fok Ring Current and Radiation Belt Simulations (Fok RC, RBE, CRCM, CIMI):**

Fluxes **F** for electrons (**e-**) and hydrogen ions (**H+**) in ring current models and Oxygen ions (>b?O+) and Helium ions (**He+**) in CRCM and CIMI ring current and radiation belt models:

- identified by the (sine of the) pitch angle (
**_PA=?.???**, 0<"?.???"<1), - Pitch-angle-integrated fluxes identified by:Energy-independent parameters:
**_tot**: Total flux for species (all pitch angles),**_par**: Fluxes along magnetic field B (Pitch angle <60 deg, "PA" <0.866),**_perp**: Fluxes perpendicular to B (Pitch angle >60 deg, "PA" >0.866),**_anis**: Pitch-angle anisotropy*(F_perp-F_par)/F_tot*.**P**- pressure resulting from integration over all fluxes in energy and pitch angle space.

The pressure is the contribution from the particle species currently visualized (either electrons, protons, Helium or Oxygen ions).**N_ps**Plasmasphere density (from stand-alone CIMI model).

This field may be zero if a plasmasphere model was not included in the CIMI model simulation.

All fluxes are defined in spatial coordinates **X** and **Y** (RE, in GSM) or polar coordinates (**R** between 2 and 10 RE and **MLT** between 0 and 24 hours).

There are 12 energy levels in the ring current (Fom-RC) and radiation belt electron (RBE) models and up to 16 levels in versions of CRCM and CIMI. Energies are between 1 keV and 300 keV for electrons in versions of the Fok ring current model, between 0.1 keV and ~300 keV for CRCM and CIMI electrons and between 1 keV< and ~3000 keV for CRCM and CIMI ion species. The pitch angle grid has 12 levels for the ring current and radiation belt electron models and 18 levels for CRCM and CIMI ring current and radiation belt models.

## SAMI2 and SAMI3

**Physical Variables Written by SAMI2 and SAMI3 Simulations:**

All variables denoted by "N_" are densities measured in particles per cm3.

**N_e:**electrons- densities of singly positive-charged ions:
**N_H+:**Hydrogen ions or protons (**H+**)**N_O+:**Oxygen ions (**O+**)**N_NO+:**Nitrogen-Oxide ions (**NO+**)**N_O2+:**Oxygen molecule ions (**O2+**)**N_He+:**Helium ions (**He+**)**N_N2+:**Nitrogen molecule ions (**N2+**)**N_N+:**Nitrogen ions (**N+**)

- densities of neutral species:
**N_H:**Hydrogen atoms (**H**)**N_O:**Oxygen atoms(**O**)**N_NO:**Nitrogen-Oxide molecules(**NO**)**N_O2:**Oxygen molecule molecules (**O2**)**N_He:**Helium atoms (**He+**)**N_N2:**Nitrogen molecules (**N2+**)**N_N:**Nitrogen atoms (**N+**)

- Ion temperatures:
**T_H+:**Hydrogen ions or protons (**H+**)**T_O+:**Oxygen ions (**O+**)**T_NO+:**Nitrogen-Oxide ions (**NO+**)**T_O2+:**Oxygen molecule ions (**O2+**)**T_He+:**Helium ions (**He+**)**T_N2+:**Nitrogen molecule ions (**N2+**)**T_N+:**Nitrogen ions (**N+**)

- Ion drift speeds along magnetic field lines:
**VS_H+:**Hydrogen ions or protons (**H+**)**VS_O+:**Oxygen ions (**O+**)**VS_NO+:**Nitrogen-Oxide ions (**NO+**)**VS_O2+:**Oxygen molecule ions (**O2+**)**VS_He+:**Helium ions (**He+**)**VS_N2+:**Nitrogen molecule ions (**N2+**)**VS_N+:**Nitrogen ions (**N+**)

Variables below only applies to SAMI3:

**NmF2:**maximum electron density in F-region**hmF2:**altitude in [km] of the F-region maximum of N_e**TEC:**Total Electron Content

## SWMF

**Physical Variables written:**

The **magnetic field perturbations** written by the SWMF model (Bn, Be, Bd) (in geographic or geomagnetic (dipole) coordinates) is the sum of the field contributions in the magnetosphere (with suffix *Mhd*), field-aligned currents (*Fac*), and Hall (*Hal*) and Pedersen (*Ped*) currents in the ionosphere.

The output variables are:

**Bn**: north component of the magnetic field perturbation (sum of all contributions),**Be**: east component of the magnetic field perturbation (sum of all contributions),**Bd**: down component of the magnetic field perturbation (sum of all contributions),**BnMhd**: north component of the magnetic field perturbation (magnetosphere MHD only),**BeMhd**: east component of the magnetic field perturbation (magnetosphere MHD only),**BdMhd**: down component of the magnetic field perturbation (magnetosphere MHD only),**BnFac**: north component of the magnetic field perturbation (field-aligned currents only),**BeFac**: east component of the magnetic field perturbation (field-aligned currents only),**BdFac**: down component of the magnetic field perturbation (field-aligned currents only),**BnHal**: north component of the magnetic field perturbation (Hall currents in ionosphere only),**BeHal**: east component of the magnetic field perturbation (Hall currents in ionosphere only),**BdHal**: down component of the magnetic field perturbation (Hall currents in ionosphere only),**BnPed**: north component of the magnetic field perturbation (Pedersen currents in ionosphere only),**BePed**: east component of the magnetic field perturbation (Pedersen currents in ionosphere only),**BdPed**: down component of the magnetic field perturbation (Pedersen currents in ionosphere only),

## TIEGCM

**Physical Variables written by TIEGCM simulations:**

The **coordinate system** consists of

- Longitude
**Lon**with**positive**vector component meaning**eastward**, - Latitude
**Lat**from -90 at the south pole to 90 at the north pole with**positive**being**northward**, - Pressure levels
**IP**(0 to 28), corresponding to log pressure ln(p0/p) -7 to +7, or height**H**in km

(* ln(p0/p) is the native vertical coordinate denoted as "lev" on the output data files)

The **basic plasma and electrodynamic field variables in 3D** are:

**Height**(Geopotential Height**Z**) in [km] corresponding to pressure level number**IP**.

The height of a pressure level varies spatially and with time. Heights covered start at about 97 km (**IP**=0) and reach a few hundred km above ground (the maximum found for**IP**=28, the top layer, is typically between 450 km and 1000 km).

The height can be used as an alternative 3rd coordinate for plotting.

(***Z**is used by post-processors to interpolate fields to constant height surfaces).- Geopotential Height calculated with varying gravity
**ZG**in [km] - Particle number density
**N**in [cm-3] with species identifier:**e**: electron**O+**: atomic oxygen ion**O2+**: molecular oxygen ion**N2+**: molecular nitrogen ion**NO+**: nitric oxide ion**N+**: atomic nitrogen ion

- Particle mass mixing ratio
**rho**(0<**ρ**<1) with species identifier:**O**: atomic oxygen**O2**: oxygen molecule**N4S**: ground state atomic nitrogen**N2D**: excited state atomic nitrogen**NO**: nitric oxide

- Temperature in [K]:
**T_n**: neutral gas**T_i**: ions**T_e**: electrons - Electric potential
**PHI**in [Volts] **Omega**(vertical motion of neutral gas) in [10-6/s]- Neutral gas velocity
**Vn**in [m/s] with its three components**Vn_Lat**(meridional, positive northward)**Vn_Lon**(zonal, positive eastward)**Vn_IP**(vertical, radial, calculated from**Omega**)

- Plasma (ion) velocity
**Vi**in [m/s] with three components**Vi_Lat**(meridional, positive northward)**Vi_Lon**(zonal, positive eastward)**Vi_IP**(vertical) (* The components of**Vn**and**Vi**are in [cm/s] on the output data files)

**TEC**(Total Electron Content) integrated over altitudes between lower boundary (IP=0) and upper boundary (IP=28) in [TECU=1016 electrons/m2]

Zonal averages are calculated from **T (T_n), T_e, T_i, Vn_lat (U) and Vn_lon (V)**

## Timeline Plots

**Physical Variables used in Timeline Plots:**

The basic plasma and electrodynamic field variables are:

**Cross Polar Cap Potential and DST Index Timeline**

- Cross polar cap potential in Northern hemisphere
**CPCP_N**in kV - Cross polar cap potential in Southern hemisphere
**CPCP_S**in kV - DST index
**DST**in nT

**Polar Cap Area**

- Polar cap area
**PC_area**in m2 - Polar cap flux
**PC_flux**in 109Wb

**Magnetopause Standoff Distance**

- Magnetopause standoff distance at noon local time
**mpnose**in Re - Minimum distance of magnetopause from Earth within 30 degrees from the Sun-Earth line (10 AM to 2 PM local time sector)
**rmin**in Re - Local time at closest distance of magnetopause from Earth (rmin)
**lt_at_rmin**in hr

**Ionosphere Joule heating:**

Variable names below have a "_N" or "_S" attached:**_N**: computed for northern hemisphere**_S**: computed for southern hemisphere

**JrPHI**in GW - Joule heating computed radial currents Jr and electric potential PHI**I**in MA - Radial current flowing into one hemisphere (all Jr > 0 integrated over hemisphere)**Dphi**in kV - maximum (PHI) - minimum (PHI) in hemisphere

Variable below applies to both hemispheres:

**Theta**in degrees - dipole tilt angle from Z-axis in GSM coordinates

**Extent of Northern Polar Cap Area**

- Extent of Northern Polar Cap Area at 24 magnetic local times
**colat_??**in deg, with ?? from 0 to 23

## TING

**Physical Variables written by TING simulations:**

The **coordinate system** consists of

- Longitude
**Lon**with**positive**vector components meaning**eastward**, - Latitude
**Lat**from -90 at the south pole to 90 at the north pole with**positive**being**northward**, - pressure level
**IP**or height**H**in km.

**Vector (arrow) plots** of the velocities only make sense as:

**vertical cuts**(meridional or at constant-latitude) if**UseHeight**is selected,**synoptic maps**of velocity vectors (over local time and latitude) if plotted at**constant height**(not constant pressure level IP).

The **basic plasma and electrodynamic field variables in 3D** are:

**Height**in [km] corresponding to pressure level number**IP**

The height of a pressure level varies spatially and with time. Heights covered start at about 80 km (**IP**=0) and reach a few hundred km above ground (the maximum found for**IP**=14, the top layer, is typically between 450 km and 1000 km).

The height can be used as an alternative 3rd coordinate for plotting.- Particle number density
**N**in [m-3] with species identifier (after the "_"):**e**: electrons,**O**: oxygen ions,**N2**: nitrogen molecules,**O2**: oxygen molecules.

- Neutral gas temperature
**T_n**in [K]. - Mean molecular mass
**Rmt**in [amu]. - Hall and Pedersen conductivities
**sigma_H**,**sigma_P**in [mho/m]. - Neutral gas velocity
**Vn**in [m/s] with its three components**Vn_Lat**(meridional; CTIP name "V_x"),**Vn_Lon**(zonal, longitudinal; CTIP name "V_y") and**Vn_IP**(vertical, radial; CTIP name "V_z"). - Plasma (ion) velocity
**Vi**in [m/s] with its components**Vi_Lat**("Vi_x"),**Vi_Lon**("Vi_y").**Vi_IP**("Vi_z") is missing in the model output and assumed to be zero for vector arrow plots.

**Height-integrated quantities in 3D data**

available at each position in local time and latitude (obtained from 3D CTIP variables above)

**NmF2**: maximum electron density**N_e**in [m-3] in the vertical profile**HmF2**: height in [km] of the maximum of**N_e**(see**NmF2**)**O/N2**: ratio of N_O and N_N2 in the vertical column. The ratio is calculated from the pressure level where**SH*N_N2=1021m-2**with**SH=k_B T_n/(g*m(N2))**being the scale height of the N2 gas species (m=28 amu). The O-column density is obtained by interpolation at this pressure level using model outputs at pressure levels 8 and 9.

**Height-integrated quantities** (2D CTIP data)

**SigmaP**,**SigmaH**: Pedersen and Hall conductance [S],**En._flux**: Energy flux [mW m-2],**En._mean**: Mean particle energy [keV],**Q**: Heat flux [W m-2].

## Tsyganenko

**Physical Variables used in Tsyganenko model runs:**

All quantities are positions and magnetic field strength values along a magnetic field line traced from predefined positions or positions along a satellite trajectory.

**X_GSM**: GSM X field line start position [RE]**Y_GSM**: GSM Y field line start position [RE]**Z_GSM**: GSM Z field line start position [RE]**Bstart_X**X-component of magnetic field at start position [nT]**Bstart_Y**Y-component of magnetic field at start position [nT]**Bstart_Z**Z-component of magnetic field at start position [nT]**X_Bmin**: GSM X component of minimum-B position [RE]**Y_Bmin**: GSM Y component of minimum-B position [RE]**Z_Bmin**: GSM Z component of minimum-B position [RE]**Bmin_X**X-component of magnetic field at minimum-B position [nT]**Bmin_Y**Y-component of magnetic field at minimum-B position [nT]**Bmin_Z**Z-component of magnetic field at minimum-B position [nT]**X_Bapex**: GSM X component of apex position [RE]**Y_Bapex**: GSM Y component of apex position [RE]**Z_Bapex**: GSM Z component of apex position [RE]**Bapex_X**X-component of magnetic field at apex position [nT]**Bapex_Y**Y-component of magnetic field at apex position [nT]**Bapex_Z**Z-component of magnetic field at apex position [nT]**X_ZSM=0**: SM X component of position where ZSM=0 [RE]**Y_ZSM=0**: SM Y component of position where ZSM=0 [RE]**X_ZGSM=0**: GSM X component of position where ZGSM=0 [RE]**Y_ZGSM=0**: GSM Y component of position where ZGSM=0 [RE]**X_N=0**SM X position of northern hemisphere footpoint**Y_N=0**SM Y position of northern hemisphere footpoint**Z_N=0**SM Z position of northern hemisphere footpoint**Lon_N=0**geogr. Longitude position of northern hemisphere footpoint**Lat_N=0**geogr, Latitude position of northern hemisphere footpoint**Alt_N=0**altitude position of northern hemisphere footpoint**X_S=0**SM X position of southern hemisphere footpoint**Y_S=0**SM Y position of southern hemisphere footpoint**Z_S=0**SM Z position of southern hemisphere footpoint**Lon_S=0**geogr. Longitude position of southern hemisphere footpoint**Lat_S=0**geogr, Latitude position of southern hemisphere footpoint**Alt_S=0**altitude position of southern hemisphere footpoint

## USU-GAIM

**Physical Variables written by USU-GAIM specification:**

The **coordinate system** consists of

- Longitude
**Lon**with**positive**vector components meaning**eastward**, - Latitude
**Lat**from -90 at the south pole to 90 at the north pole with**positive**being**northward**, - Altitude
**Alt**in km.

The **basic field variables in 3D** are:

**N_e**in [m-3]: Electron density (3D distribution).

**Height-integrated quantities in 3D data**

available at each position in local time and latitude

**TEC**in [m-2]: Total Electron Content (height-integrated electron density, 2D distribution).**NmF2**in [m-3]: Electron density maximum in F-region (2D).**HmF2**in [km]: Height of Electron density maximum in F-region (2D).

**Vertical Equivalent TEC** (shown on separate plots)

- Vertical Equivalent Total Electron Content (TEC) data are plotted at the 300km pierce points of the various slant satellite-ground station links. Vertical Equivalent TEC is obtained from the leveled, bias corrected, slant TEC values assimilated by the model.

## VERB3D

**Outputs of the VERB3D model in CCMC visualization:**

**Coordinates:**

- L [RE]
- Energy [MeV]
- Pitch Angle (PA) [degrees]

**Physical Variables Written:**

**PSD**the phase space density of radiation belt electrons.

## VERB

**Outputs of the VERB model (version 2.x) in CCMC visualization:**

**Coordinates:**

- L [RE]
- Energy [MeV]
- Pitch Angle (PA) [degrees]

**Physical Variables Written:**

**flux**the radiation belt electron flux in units of**PSD**the phase space density of radiation belt electrons in units of [(c/cm MeV)-3].**pc**the radiation belt electron momentum multiplied by the speed of light in units of [MeV].

## WACCMX

**Coordinates:**

**lon**- geographic east longitude [deg]**lat**- latitude [deg]**IP**- pressure level [unitless]**Z3GM**- geometric height [km]

***Note:** Z3GM can be used instead of IP as the vertical coordinate in visualizations.

**3D variables:**

**Z3**- geopotential height in [km]**Z3GM**- geometric altitude in [km]**N_e**- electrion density in [cm-3]**N_o+**- oxygen ion density in [cm-3]- Mass Mixing Ratios (
**mmr**) [unitless]:**mmr_O**- oxygen atoms**mmr_O2**- oxygen molecules**mmr_H**- hydrogen atoms

- Temperatures [K]:
**T**- neutral atmosphere**T_e**- electrons**T_i**- ions

- Velocities in [m/s]:
**Vn_lon**- zonal neutral velocity**Vn_lat**- meridional neutral velocity**Vn_Z**- vertical neutral velocity**Vi_lon**- zonal ion velocity**Vi_lat**- meridional ion velocity**Vi_Z**- vertical ion velocity

**omega**- vertical motion in [Pa/s]**TEC**– total electron content in [TECU} or [10^16 cm-2]**NmF2**- electron density maximum in F2 layer in [cm-3]**HmF2**- height of maximum electron density in F2 layer in [km]

Zonal averages are calculated from **T (T_n), T_e, T_i, Vn_lat (U) and Vn_lon (V)**

## Zonal Averages

Zonal (longitudinal) **averages of T (T_n), T_e, T_i, Vn_lat (U) and Vn_lon (V)** to the variables available for **WACCMX, TIE-GCM, CTIPe and GITM** models.

Example: The **zonal average of T** (neutral temperature) is listed as **avg(T)_Lon** in the web interface and appears in visualizations as **<T>**** _{Lon}**.