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Uniform : Pederson Conductance = p [mhos], Hall Conductance = h [mhos]

Semi-Empirical Auroral (BATSRUS): Model uses solar EUV ionization empirical model that depends on solar 10.7 cm flux and the solar zenith angle, nightside background conductance, auroral oval conductance (empirical relationship between the field-aligned currents and local conductance derived using the AMIE technique), and constant polar cap conductance.
A.J. Ridley, T.I. Gombosi, D.L. DeZeeuw, Ionospheric Control of the Magnetosphere: Conductance. Annales Geophysicae, 22 567-584, 2004.

Semi-Empirical Auroral (Open GGCM): Model uses solar EUV ionization empirical model that depends on solar 10.7 cm flux and the solar zenith angle, model for the mean energy and energy flux of precipitating magntospheric electrons, and empirical relationship between electron precipitation parameters and local conductance (Robinson Formula). Diffuse electron precipitation is specified by the plasma temperature in the plasma sheet. Discrete electron precipitation (auroral electrons accelerated by a potential drop in regions of upward field-aligned current) is modeled using Knight Relation.
Raeder, J., R. L. McPherron, L. A. Frank, S. Kokubun, G. Lu, T. Mukai, W. R. Paterson, J. B. Sigwarth, H. J. Singer, and J. A. Slavin , Global simulation of the Geospace Environment Modeling substorm challenge event, Journal of Geophysical Research - Space, 106, 381, 2001. .

Sig-CTIM (UCLA-GGCM): Model uses NOAA Coupled Ionosphere Thermosphere Model, Fuller-Rowell et al., in STEP Report, edited by T. Chang and J.R. Jasperse, vol. 15, p. 121, Cambridge, Mass., 1998. Sig-CTIM uses electron precipitation parameters evaluated from MHD output (see, ucla-ggcm auroral precipitation model).
Raeder, J., Y. Wang, and T. Fuller-Rowell, Geomagnetic Storm Simulation With a Coupled Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model, in: Space Weather: Progress and Challenges in Research and Applications, pp. 377--384, P. Song, H. J. Singer, and G. Siscoe, editors, Geophysical Monograph, 125, AGU, Washington, D.C., 2001].

Semi-Empirical Auroral (LFM): Model uses solar EUV ionization model similar to the one used by AMIE (Richmond 1992) that depends on solar 10.7 cm flux and the solar zenith angle.
The model is enhanced by the effects of electron precipitation according to Knight (1973), Fridman and Lemaire (1980), and Fedder and Slinker (1995). The full description is given in Wiltberger et al. (2009) where one can find all the references:
M. Wiltberger, R.A. Weigel, W. Lotko, and J.A. Fedder, Modeling seasonal variations of auroral particle precipitation in a global-scale magnetosphere-ionosphere simulation, JGR 114, A01204, doi:10.1029/2008JA013108, 2009.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Air Force Materiel Command Air Force Office of Scientific Research Air Force Research Laboratory Air Force Weather Agency NOAA Space Environment Center National Science Foundation Office of Naval Research

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