This is a simple analytical model based on a quasi-static electric potential field. An electric convection potential is introduced within the auroral zone. Semi-empirical analytical expressions are given for the horizontal components of the ionospheric electric field at all latitudes and local times. They are arranged to fit most general features of electric fields observed by polar-orbiting satellites. Magnetospheric electric fields are derived assuming a static magnetic dipole field and no parallel electric field. The model uses 18 coefficients. Two sets of coefficients are given, one for low and one for moderate geomagnetic activity.
H. Volland, Models of the Global Electric Fields Within the Magnetosphere, Am. Geophys. 31, 159, 1975.
H. Volland, A Model of the Magnetospheric Electric Convection Field, J. Geophys. Res. 83, 2695, 1978.
H. Volland, Semi-Empirical Models of Magnetospheric Electric Fields, pp. 261-280, in: Quantitative Modeling of Magnetospheric Processes, W. P. Olson (ed.), American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1979.