This mathematical model of the high latitude convection pattern is based on modifications to the Volland (1975) model (see "Volland Electric Field Model" above). It represents the general features of a two-cell convection pattern (IMF [Interplanetary Magnetic Field] southward) with a convection reversal boundary and a convection throat at noon. The model is simple and easily manipulable. A number of free parameters can be adjusted to customize the model for a particular application. The model can only be considered valid for southward IMF and does have some obvious limitations, such as no provision for overlapping of the two convection cells near noon. See the Utah Electric Convection Field Model and the Heppner-Maynard-Rich Electric Field Model and references in each for comparisons with other models.
Availability: Available from authors (is included in Heppner-Maynard-Rich software package )
R. A. Heelis, J. K. Lowell, and R. W. Spiro, A Model of the High-Latitude Ionospheric Convection Pattern, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 6339, 1982.