Center for Space Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas

P.O. Box 688-083

Richardson, Texas 75080

**Brief Description**:

This mathematical model of the high latitude convection pattern is based on
modifications to the Volland (1975) model (see "Volland Electric Field Model"
above). It represents the general features of a two-cell convection pattern
(IMF [Interplanetary Magnetic Field] southward) with a convection reversal
boundary and a convection throat at noon. The model is simple and easily
manipulable. A number of free parameters can be adjusted to customize the
model for a particular application. The model can only be considered valid for
southward IMF and does have some obvious limitations, such as no provision for
overlapping of the two convection cells near noon. See the Utah Electric
Convection Field Model and the Heppner-Maynard-Rich Electric
Field Model and references in each for comparisons with other models.

**Availability**: Available from authors (is included in
Heppner-Maynard-Rich software package )

**References**:

R. A. Heelis, J. K. Lowell, and R. W. Spiro, A Model of the High-Latitude
Ionospheric Convection Pattern, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 6339, 1982.

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