Bent Ionospheric Model 1972

Author: R. B. Bent
DBA Systems Inc.
Melbourne, Florida 32901

Parameter: Electron density

Brief Description:
The model describes the ionospheric electron density as a function of latitude, longitude, time, season, and solar radio flux. The topside is represented by a parabola and three exponential profile segments, and the bottomside by a bi-parabola. The model is based on about 50,000 Alouette topside ionograms (1962-1966), 6,000 Ariel 3 in situ measurements (1967- 1968), and 400,000 bottomside ionograms (1962-1969). For the F2-peak the CCIR maps are used. The model has been widely used for ionospheric refraction corrections in satellite tracking. It does not include the lower layers (D, E, F1) and uses a simple quadratic relationship between CCIR's M(3000)F2 factor and the height of the F2-peak. A comparison between the Bent model and the IRI model and their application for satellite orbit determination was discussed by Bilitza et al. (1988). IRI showed better results because of the more detailed representation of the bottomside density structure.

- FORTRAN code from National Geophysical Data Center (

R. B. Bent, S. K. Llewellyn, and P. E. Schmid, A Highly Successful Empirical Model for the Worldwide Ionospheric Electron Density Profile, DBA Systems, Melbourne, Florida, 1972.

R. B. Bent, S. K. Llewellyn, and M. K. Walloch, Description and Evaluation of the Bent Ionospheric Model, DBA Systems, Melbourne, Florida, 1972. (B26740)

R. B. Bent, S. K. Llewellyn, and P. E. Schmid, Ionospheric Refraction Corrections in Satellite Tracking, Space Research XII, 1186-1194, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1972.

P. Schmid, R. B. Bent, S. K. Llewellyn, G. Nesterczuk, and S. Rangaswamy, NASA-GSFC Ionospheric Correction to Satellite Tracking Data, Goddard Space Flight Center, Report X-591-73- 281, Greenbelt, Maryland, 1973.

S. K. Llewellyn and R. B. Bent, Documentation and Description of the Bent Ionospheric Model, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Report AFCRL-TR-73-0657, Hanscom AFB, Massachusetts, 1973.

D. Bilitza, K. Rawer, and S. Pallaschke, Study of Ionospheric Models for Satellite Orbit Determination, Radio Sci. 23, 223, 1988.

* Go to the Ionospheric Models index
* Go to the Model Web Models home page