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Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) model

CCMC Services available for VERB
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Model Developer(s)
Y. Y. Shprits
Geoforschungszentrum Potsdam, Germany

Model Description
The VERB model calculates the distribution function of the electron radiation belt in three dimensions: one in a spatial coordinate (L*), and two are in phase space (pitch angle and particle energy).

The model advances the time-dependent evolution of the electron distribution using the Fokker-Planck equation with pitch angle and energy diffusion coefficients representing field-aligned wave propagation for dayside and nightside chorus, plasmaspheric hiss and electomagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. The diffusion coefficients depend on the planetary K (Kp) index, which is the primary time-dependent model input.

The diffusion equation (Eq. 6 in Subbotin and Shprits, 2009), is evaluated between 1 ≤ L* ≤ 7 in an energy range from 0.01 MeV < E < 10 MeV at L*=7 and 0.05 MeV ≤ E ≤ 24 MeV at L*=4. Larger energies are considered at lower L* values.

Phase space densities at the atmosphere (L*=1) are set to zero to represent losses. Time-dependent particle flux observations at geosynchronous orbit can be used at the outer boundary (L*=7). The default flux distribution function is an exponential fit to a typical, stationary energy spectrum.

References and relevant publications
Subbotin, D. A. and Y. Y. Shprits (2009),Three-dimensional modeling of the radiation belts using the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code,Space Weather, 7, S10001,doi:10.1029/2008SW000452.

Shprits, Y. Y. , D. Subbotin, and B. Ni (2009),Evolution of electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt computed with the VERB code,J. Geophys. Res., 114, A11209,doi:10.1029/2008JA013784.

Subbotin, D., Y. Shprits, and B. Ni (2010),Three-dimensional VERB radiation belt simulations including mixed diffusion,J. Geophys. Res., 115, A03205,doi:10.1029/2009JA015070.

CCMC Contact(s)


Developer Contact(s)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Air Force Materiel Command Air Force Office of Scientific Research Air Force Research Laboratory Air Force Weather Agency NOAA Space Environment Center National Science Foundation Office of Naval Research

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