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Comprehensive Model Number 5 of the near-Earth magnetic field

CCMC Services available for CM5
Run Instantly

Model Developer(s)
Terence J. Sabaka

Model Description
CM5 is a member of a suite of "Comprehensive Models" (CMs) that describes the near-Earth magnetic field and has been developed by NASA/GSFC and the Danish Technical University. The concept behind the CMs is to parameterize all major near-Earth magnetic field sources (core, lithosphere, M2 tidal, magnetosphere, ionosphere, associated induced fields, and toroidal fields within satellite sampling shells) and subsequentally co-estimate these in order to achieve optimal field separation. CM5 is an empirical inverse model derived from pre-Swarm satellite data (CHAMP, Oersted, and SAC-C) and ground observatory data from August 2000 to January 2013.

Model Input
Spatial and temporal locations, and the F10.7 cm radio flux value.

Model Output

  1. The (North,East,Down) components of the magnetic field vector separately for the sources:
    • Core/lithosphere
    • M2 tidal
    • Primary magnetosphere
    • Induced magnetosphere
    • Primary ionosphere
    • Induced ionosphere
  2. Limited sets of coefficients for each field source.

References and relevant publications
Sabaka, T.J., Tyler, R.H., and N. Olsen (2016). Extracting ocean-generated tidal magnetic signals from Swarm data through satellite gradiometry, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, doi:10.1002/2016GL068180.
Sabaka, T.J., Olsen, N., Tyler, R.H., and A. Kuvshinov (2015). CM5, a pre-Swarm comprehensive geomagnetic field model derived from over 12 yr of CHAMP, Oersted, SAC-C and observatory data, Geophys. J. Int., 200, 1596-1626.
Sabaka, T.J., Toffner-Clausen, L., and N. Olsen (2013). Use of the comprehensive inversion method for Swarm satellite data analysis, Earth Planets Space, 65, 1202-1222.
Sabaka, T.J., and N. Olsen (2006). Enhancing comprehensive inversions using the Swarm constellation, Earth Planets Space, 58, 371-395.
Sabaka, T.J., Olsen, N., and M.E. Purucker (2004). Extending comprehensive models of the Earth's magnetic field with Oersted and CHAMP data, Geophys. J. Int., 159, 521-547.
Sabaka, T.J., Olsen, N., and R.A. Langel (2002). A comprehensive model of the quiet-time near-Earth magnetic field: phase 3, Geophys. J. Int., 151, 32-68.

CCMC Contact(s)


Developer Contact(s)


National Aeronautics and Space Administration Air Force Materiel Command Air Force Office of Scientific Research Air Force Research Laboratory Air Force Weather Agency NOAA Space Environment Center National Science Foundation Office of Naval Research

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