Last Updated: 12/08/2023


Version: 1.0

SWMF AWSoM_R (Alfven Wave Solar Atmosphere model), has been installed at the CCMC, with the following options available to the users:

AWSoM_R (steady state ambient) version using full rotation magnetograms is available for CCMC Runs on Request users. AWSoM_R (time dependent) Real Time run repository AWSoM_R (time dependent) + CME + EEGGL(Eruptive Event Generator, Gibson and Low) with the options to choose Full Rotation Synoptic maps or QuickReduce Synoptic maps will be available for CCMC Runs on Request users soon.

The Alfven-Wave driven sOlar wind Model (AWSoM) is part of the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF). The SWMF has been developed by the Center for Space Environment Modeling (CSEM) team led by Tamas Gombosi at the University of Michigan (Toth et al. 2012). AWSOM uses the solar corona (SC) and inner heliosphere (IH) components of the SWMF. Both the SC and IH models are based on the BATS-R-US MHD code, which is a 3-dimensional block-adaptive code.

The AWSOM model can produce a solution of the ambient corona for a Carrington Rotation selected by the user. The computational domain starts from the top of the chromosphere, and includes the transition region, corona, and the inner heliosphere. This model solves the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations with separate ion and electron temperatures and two equations for the Alfven wave turbulent energy densities propagating along and counter the magnetic field lines. The Alfvenic Poynting flux is assumed to be emanating from the chromosphere. The interaction of the wave field with the MHD plasma serves to both accelerate and heat the plasma. This model includes Spitzer electron heat conduction and radiative cooling (calculated using a CHIANTI table) in the lower corona. Coronal heating is achieved through observationally motivated turbulent Alfven wave dissipation. This mechanism uses a dissipation length, Lperp, which depends on the magnetic field magnitude. It is assumed that some of the wave energy propagating away from the Sun is reflected backwards due to inhomogeneities. The detailed reflection process is now directly simulated. Before 2014, Jan 30, a reflection coefficient, Cref, was used as an input parameter (see restrictions below). Heating due to the interaction of outward propagating and reflected waves is dominant in the coronal holes. In closed magnetic field line regions, counter propagating wave dissipation is dominant. By the date of the document, the most complete description of the model is provided in Sokolov et al (2013). The detailed description of the wave reflection is provided in Van Der Holst et al (2014).

The inner boundary conditions for the magnetic field are taken from a synoptic magnetogram (GONG/MDI). The temperature and density at the top of the chromosphere are set to be uniform at 50,000 [K] and 2x1011 [cm-3], respectively. The radial velocity is set to zero. The outer boundary conditions are superfast outflow.

The initial conditions for the solar wind plasma are based on a Parker solution. The initial magnetic field is based on the Potential Field Source Surface Model obtained from the synoptic magnetogram.

The coronal code iterates for (60,000) steps until the solution has settled into a steady state. (The number of steps may change as we study the number of iterations that the solar coronal component needs to converge). Some cases may not reach equilibrium - the user should check the convergence plots provided with the output to confirm convergence to an equilibrium, and provide feedback to model developers. Then the heliospheric component evolves a solution consistent with the coronal model for 5,000 iterations.

Automatic refinement is performed several times to increase the grid resolution within the current sheet. If the model is used with CME, an extra refinement is performed for the active region from which the CME originates.


GONG synoptic maps (magnetograms) and CME parameters derived from EEGGL tool


Outputs include the MHD plasma parameters (atomic mass unit density N, pressure P, velocity V_x, V_y, V_z, magnetic field B_x, B_y, B_z, electric currents, J_x, J_y, J_z, Alfven wave energy densities I01, I02 and dissipation rates GammaLperp, GammaCref. Description of derived variables can be found here.

The above quantities are available in full 3D, in 2D slices, as well as along satellite orbits.

COMING SOON: The model can produce synthetic images of the Sun's atmosphere, including EUV, X-ray and white-light images.

Model is time-dependent.


  • Solar
  • Heliosphere / Inner Heliosphere


  • Coronal Holes
  • Coronal Mass Ejections
  • Ambient Solar Wind
  • Magnetic Connectivity
  • High Speed Stream
  • Stream Interaction Regions
  • Heliospheric Current Sheet
  • Coronal Mass Ejections Propagation
  • Coronal Mass Ejection Arrival


Code Languages: F90/F95, C++, Perl


Publication Policy

Co-author Statement: In addition, papers using EEGGL tool should have three EEGGL developers as co-authors: M. Jin, W. Manchester, I. Sokolov.

In addition to any model-specific policy, please refer to the General Publication Policy.