Last Updated: 01/30/2023

SEPSTER2D

Version: 1.0

SEPSTER2D is an empirical model to predict SEP event-integrated and peak intensity spectra between 10 and 130 MeV at 1AU, assuming an energy-dependent 2D Gaussian spatial distribution, and accounting for the correlation between the intensity and the speed of the parent CME, and the magnetic-field-line connection angle. The magnetic footpoints of the IMF field lines passing through the observer (Earth, STEREO-A and -B) are estimated at CME first appearance time and at a 2.5 Rs radial distance based on a simple IMF Parker spiral model.

Caveats:

Predicted intensities are expected to overestimate the observations for relatively slow (<600km/s) CMEs and narrow SEP events. SEP intensities above 130 MeV are based on spectral extrapolations and are characterized by large uncertainties.

Inputs

CME speed, direction and first appearance time from DONKI; solar wind speed from ACE/DSCOVR/STEREO

Outputs

SEP peak and event-integrated intensities (both differential and energy-integrated) at energies between 10 and 130 MeV, along with corresponding uncertainties. Time of peak intensity (added in version 1.1)

Change Log

Upgraded to Version 1.1 on March 21, 2022 at the CCMC. List of changes includes:

  • Calculation of peak intensity times added

Domains

  • Heliosphere / Inner Heliosphere

Space Weather Impacts

  • Solar energetic particles - SEPs (human exploration, aviation safety, aerospace assets functionality)

Phenomena

  • Solar Energetic Particles

Publications

Code

Code Languages: C/C++

Contacts

Publication Policy

Bruno, A., Richardson, I.G. Empirical Model of 10-30 MeV Solar Energetic Particle Spectra at 1 AU Based on Coronal Mass Ejection Speed and Direction. Sol Phys 296, 36 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-021-01779-4

In addition to any model-specific policy, please refer to the General Publication Policy.