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Last Updated: 05/26/2022


Version: 1.0

SEPSTER2D is an empirical model to predict SEP event-integrated and peak intensity spectra between 10 and 130 MeV at 1AU, assuming an energy-dependent 2D Gaussian spatial distribution, and accounting for the correlation between the intensity and the speed of the parent CME, and the magnetic-field-line connection angle. The magnetic footpoints of the IMF field lines passing through the observer (Earth, STEREO-A and -B) are estimated at CME first appearance time and at a 2.5 Rs radial distance based on a simple IMF Parker spiral model.


Predicted intensities are expected to overestimate the observations for relatively slow (<600km/s) CMEs and narrow SEP events. SEP intensities above 130 MeV are based on spectral extrapolations and are characterized by large uncertainties.


CME speed, direction and first appearance time from DONKI; solar wind speed from ACE/DSCOVR/STEREO


SEP peak and event-integrated intensities (both differential and energy-integrated) at energies between 10 and 130 MeV, along with corresponding uncertainties. Time of peak intensity (added in version 1.1)


  • Heliosphere / Inner Heliosphere

Space Weather Impacts

  • Solar energetic particles - SEPs (human exploration, aviation safety, aerospace assets functionality)



Code Languages: C/C++


Publication Policy

Bruno, A., Richardson, I.G. Empirical Model of 10-30 MeV Solar Energetic Particle Spectra at 1 AU Based on Coronal Mass Ejection Speed and Direction. Sol Phys 296, 36 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-021-01779-4

In addition to any model-specific policy, please refer to the General Publication Policy.