Last Updated: 12/08/2023


Version: 1.0

SAMI3 (Sami3 is Also a Model of the Ionosphere) is three-dimensional global ionospheric model based on the two-dimensional model SAMI2 [Huba et al., 2000, 2008]. The SAMI3 calculates the plasma and chemical evolution of seven ion species (H+, He+, N+, O+, NO+, N2+ and O2+) in the altitude range 85 km to 20,000 km. The ion temperature equation is solved for three ion species (H+, He+, and O+) as well as the electron temperature equation. Ion inertia is included in the ion momentum equation for motion along the geomagnetic field. An offset, tilted dipole geomagnetic field is used, and the plasma is modeled from hemisphere to hemisphere. High altitude boundary conditions are not needed since a complete ionospheric flux tube is modeled. In addition, the E x B drift motion of the plasma is included for both zonal electric fields (vertical drifts) and meridional electric fields (zonal drifts). The neutral composition and temperature are provided by NRLMSISE00 model and the neutral winds are obtained from the HWM models. SAMI3 uses a unique, nonorthogonal, nonuniform, fixed grid.



Value of F10.7 (1 day and 3 months average). AP Index ExB Drift velocity


ion density ion temperature ion velocity electron temperature NmF2 hmF2 TEC (Total Electron Content)

Model is time-dependent.


  • Global Ionosphere

Space Weather Impacts

  • Ionosphere variability (navigation, communications)


  • Variablility of Plasma Density
  • Equatorial Anomaly
  • Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances



Publication Policy

In addition to any model-specific policy, please refer to the General Publication Policy.