Last Updated: 12/08/2023


Version: 1.x

The radiation propagation was done with the NOVICE* code (Jordan 1976) using its solid angle sectoring/3-dimensional adjoint (reverse) Monte Carlo transport capability. The use of the adjoint method, in which particles are followed backward from the target to the observatory's exterior, greatly increases the calculation efficiency compared to a forward Monte Carlo code because only particle trajectories that interact with the target are tracked (Desorgher 2010). NOVICE also interfaces with Computer Aided Design (CAD) models, allowing complex shielding geometries such as observatories and instrumentation to be analyzed.


Energy spectra


Absorbed dose in silicon for different aluminum shielding


  • Heliosphere / Inner Heliosphere
  • Geospace
  • Magnetosphere / Global Magnetosphere
  • Global Ionosphere
  • Thermosphere

Space Weather Impacts

  • Near-earth radiation and plasma environment (aerospace assets functionality)
  • Solar energetic particles - SEPs (human exploration, aviation safety, aerospace assets functionality)
  • Galactic cosmic rays - GCRs (human exploration, aviation safety, aerospace assets functionality)


Publication Policy

In addition to any model-specific policy, please refer to the General Publication Policy.