Real-time electric potential with Weimer 2005 modelThese plots are using NOAA-SWPC real-time solar wind data. The solar wind data are propagated to Earth with a 102-minute velocity average <Vx>=333.91 km/s from ACE's L1-position at around XGSM=245.1 RE (ACE's real-time X-position. ). The lead time is thus 67 min.
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Magnetic local time (MLT) (1-hour intervals) and
magnetic latitudes (10-degree intervals) in Altitude Adjusted Corrected Geomagnetic Coordinates (AACGM) are shown as a web of solid lines.
Geographic coordinates are shown as solid and dotted lines on a map of the continents. Local noon is at the top of the images.
The top image is the forecast (around 67 min in the future), the bottom image the nowcast (about 60  min earlier).
Solar wind data were averaged over a 15 minute interval before the two times.
Model: "Weimer_2005" by Daniel Weimer, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, VA
References: Weimer, D. R., An improved model of ionospheric electric potentials including substorm perturbations and application to the GEM November 24, 1996 event, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 106, p. 407, 2001.
Weimer, D. R. (2005), Improved ionospheric electrodynamic models and application to calculating Joule heating rates, Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, A05306, doi:10.1029/2004JA010884.
Weimer, D. R. (2005), Predicting Surface Geomagnetic Variations Using Ionospheric Electrodynamic Models, Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, A12307, doi:10.1029/ 2005JA011270.
Curator: Dr. Lutz Rastaetter, CCMC at NASA GSFC
Authorizing NASA Official: Dr. Michael Hesse, NASA GSFC
Last updated: Tue August 27, 2007